Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation approach that’s appropriate for a wide range of purposes, particularly when salt and/or dissolved solids have to be faraway from an answer. It is among the most typical forms of water treatment.
According to Anelia Hough, water treatment marketing consultant at Allmech, main South African manufacturer of boilers and provider of water therapy parts, there are several factors to be thought of when deciding on an RO system: the customer’s capability requirement (i.e. water usage), the day by day production capacity of the system, and the % rejection for specific contaminants in the source water.
“Beyond this, RO crops require proper upkeep and care to ensure they perform optimally and to increase their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from common maintenance, one of the best ways to protect a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the strain on the RO membrane – a expensive part. It additionally helps to keep away from issues like scaling and bio-fouling.”
Common Issues with RO Plants
“Factors that can have an result on a RO system’s performance embrace temperature, working stress, back pressure, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, % restoration, and, in fact, the RO membrane’s permeate manufacturing and % rejection rankings,” says Hough.
The most common issues in RO plants include:
• Fouling: happens when contaminants accumulate on the membrane surface, effectively plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water that are innocent for human consumption, however giant enough to rapidly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, inflicting it to plug. As sure dissolved compounds turn out to be more concentrated, scaling can occur if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane surface as scale. Scaling calculations are normally solely based on the silicate concentration in the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces actual membrane performance through microbial era in a biofilm that types on the membrane surface.
• Chemical damage: on a RO membrane, this means a better permeate move and poorer high quality permeate water. Dosing of oxidant agents, such as chlorine or hypochlorite, can cut back performance and ultimately outcome in the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners can even cause chemical harm.
• Mechanical injury: can happen when a system is pressurised too rapidly, damaging the RO membrane components. One of the most clears signs of damages on a RO membrane is the dearth of salt rejection capabilities. There is also fairly often an increase of permeate flow fee.
Pre-treatment can help to avoid these problems, and Hough says there are numerous choices obtainable.
Pre-treatment Options
“When choosing a pre-filter, users ought to at all times search for a verified effectivity rating next to the micron measurement on the filter’s technical data sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to help stop fouling of a RO system. This sort of sediment filtration is right for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system serving to to ensure long life of the RO membrane components. A nicely operated multimedia filter can remove particulates down to 20 microns. A multimedia filter that uses a coagulant addition can remove particulates all the means down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters utilized in microfiltration have a pore measurement of roughly zero.1 micron. เกจวัดแรงดันน้ำประปา and suspended solids are the only component that could be removed through microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemical compounds that can be used as antiscalants and dispersants to improve the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a household of chemicals designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale.
• Softening by ion exchange: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water by way of a course of called ion change. Standard water softeners are cation exchange units. Cation exchange includes the replacement of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical reaction that involves a switch of electrons from the floor of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines end up as a chloride ion that is no longer an oxidizer.
“It’s also necessary to clean the RO membrane regularly,” says Hough. “This entails high and low pH cleaners to remove contaminants from the membrane. We handle scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, while colloidal and biofouling are treated with a excessive pH cleaner.”
Allmech offers the complete vary of pre-treatment and RO membrane maintenance solutions for RO vegetation, including filtration techniques, softeners, antiscalants, chemicals and other consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re wanting forward to rising this part of our business in 2022 and beyond, leveraging our experience in all issues related to water therapy. We even have a boiler division and we stock a complete range of Runxin valves, so we’re nicely positioned to be a one-stop store for anybody needing a water remedy or boiler specialist, and we’re anticipating a busy yr ahead,” Hough says.

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